American football is a physically taxing, oftentimes brutal game. Recent years have seen an increased emphasis on protecting players at all levels from the blunt force trauma associated with long-term injuries. Increased precautions written into the rules of the game in recent years have introduced additional infractions to the game. Much the same thing happened during the early 20th Century. After the particularly brutal season of 1905, in which at least 18 players were killed and more than 150 severely injured, President Theodore Roosevelt called on his alma mater Harvard and other leading universities to curtail the violence. This led to the formation of an intercollegiate conference that became the forerunner of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. It was over the next four years that football began to shed any resemblance to its European ancestors soccer and rugby. The forward pass was legalized, the first down distance was set at 10 yards, additional referees were added to enforce rules, and hurdling was penalized.
Then, as now, experts bemoaned the transition towards a safer game as a death knell for true football. More damaging to the games long-term popularity, however, was the inability of coaches, players, and fans to keep up with the myriad changes. As this editorial cartoon from 1910 shows, football rules were becoming increasingly harder to understand.
The 1910 season was significant due to several rules put in place to increase forward passing. While meant to make the game more exciting, there were several complicated limitations to the new passing rules. Ends, the only eligible receivers, could not catch a pass more than 20 yards beyond the line of scrimmage. The quarterback could not throw a pass unless he was at least five yards behind the line of the scrimmage. The remaining linemen and backs had to be at least one-yard behind the line of scrimmage. Additionally, the ballcarrier could no longer be pushed or pulled by his teammates in an effort to gain ground. Tacklers could no longer thrown themselves at the ballcarrier in what was known as a ‘flying’ tackle. One foot had to be on the ground at all times when making a tackle. The Pittsburgh Press summed up the thoughts of many fans during the 1910 season:
“This season more than ever before, the football spectators are at a loss as to why the various penalties are imposed and why now and then, for no apparent reason, the attacking eleven is forced to relinquish possession of the ball.”
The Wichita Eagle suggested that officials use megaphones to inform fans as to the nature of infractions:
“Penalties to which teams are liable in football are manifold, and nine times out of ten the spectators don’t know what particular breach of the rules has incurred a penalty. Generally they put it down to holding or offside and let it go at that. It might be one of several dozen offenses. An announcement of the offense and the nature of of the penalty would clear up doubt and educate the spectators, and that the big majority of football patrons need education in the fine points of the game, and lots of it, nobody can deny. better understanding of a game won’t hurt its popularity.”
Famed University of Chicago coach Alonzo Stagg wanted the game to be more fan friendly, and in November 1913 he and other officials from the Western Conference, aka the Big Nine, precursor to the Big Ten Conference, set out to do just that. The members schools agreed to begin numbering player uniforms to help fans and referees identify players during the 1914 season. They also appointed Stagg to devise a code to help officials inform fans of the reasons for various penalties. It would take three more seasons before a system was devised to make sense of penalties.
On October 27, 1917, Stagg’s University of Chicago team faced in-state rival Northwestern University in Chicago. Chicago entered the early-season contest undefeated and Northwestern had lost just once to Big Nine power Ohio State. The matchup was assured widespread coverage by Chicago newspapers. Like the fans in the bleachers, however, writers in the press box were left deciphering just what penalties occured during the game. This made accurate write-ups of games problematic at best. Luckily for the sportswriters that day, the Chicago-Northwestern game was being officiated by Frank Birch. Birch, a graduate of Earlham College, had developed a system of hand signals to inform members of the press what penalty had been assessed. Each sportswriter was given a slip of paper as to the meaning of each signal. Great for the press, but no help to fans. The Chicago Herald described these initial signals in detail:
“No one without the code slip new that when the referee grasped his wrist there had been holding on one side or the other. They were equally at loss to know the meaning when he shook a couple of business like fists. That conveyed the information that there had been unnecessary roughness. Referee Birch did not pose for the multitude when he crossed his legs. The initiated were aware that there had been attempt at tripping. A sifting motion of the hands indicated illegal motion and hands on the hips was the signal for an offside play. One arm aloft denoted that one or the other side had refused a penalty, something which has always been Greek to the rooters.
The majority of the spectators could usually tell when a forward pass was incomplete, but in order that the reporters might avoid guessing he held his arms extended sidewise. Should there be any interlocked interference both arms would be folded over the breast. An arm raised in military salute meant that a loose ball foul had been committed, while the glad tidings of a touchdown or a goal kicked were conveyed by both arms held aloft.”
Birch’s next two games that season no doubt helped spread his system to colleges throughout the nation. On November 10, he officiated the Nebraska-Missouri matchup in the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Conference, precursor to the Big Eight, whose teams would one day form the Big 12 Conference. On Thanksgiving he officiated University of Nebraska’s game against eastern power Syracuse University.
“Birch’s system of wig-wagging from the field is likely to be adopted by other officials, and it would be a good idea to print the code on the slips which the line-up and the numbers of players are printed,” wrote the Herald. “The code is simple enough so it would not take the rooters long to memorize it, and it could hardly prove exhausting to the official doing the signaling”
The system certainly did not take long to catch on. Birch’s system gained widespread credence when it was published in Ernest Thompson Seton’s Sign Talk of the Indians.
Birch’s system was so influential that his signs for holding, unnecessary roughness, an incomplete pass, and a touchdown remain virtually unchanged to this day. Many of his other signs, like the military salute for a loose ball foul, lasted for several decades, as seen in this 1932 chart.
Over time, signals evolved and multiplied. Here’s a similar chart from 1949, notice the necessary roughness sign is still indicated by a military salute.
From there, the number of penalties written into the game continued to grow. As this 1963 chart illustrates, there were 25 hand signals less than fifty years after their development.
According to the National Football League, there are currently 36 official penalty signals–a useful valuable tool for an increasingly complex game–and it all started with the wigwagging of Frank Birch.